目前常见的水分测定方法

  水分测定可以是工业生产的控制分析,也可是工农业产品的质量检定;可以从成吨计的产品中测定水分也可在实验室中仅用数微升试液进行水分分析;可以是含水量达百分之几至几十的常量水分分析,也可是含水量仅为百万分之一以下的痕量水分分析等等。
  
  水分分析方法—般可分为两大类,即物理分析这和化学分析法。经典水分分析方法已逐渐被各种水分分析方法所代替,目前市场上主要存在的水分测定仪主要有以下5种:
  
  1.卡尔费休水分测定仪
  
  卡尔费休法简称费休法,是1935年卡尔.费休(Karl.Fischer)提出的测定水分的容量分拆方法。费休法是测定物质水分的各类化学方法中,对水最为专一、最为准确的方法。虽属经典方法但经过近年改进,提高了准确度,扩大了测量范围,已被列为许多物质中水分测定的标准方法。
  
  费休法属碘量法,其基本原理是利用碘氧化二氧化硫时,需要—定量的水参加反应:
  
  I2十SO2十2H2O=2HI十H2SO4
  
  上述反应是可逆的。为了使反应向正方向移动并定量进行,须加入碱性物质。实验证明,吡啶是最适宜的试剂,同时吡啶还具有可与碘和二氧化硫结合以降低二者蒸气压的作用。因此,试剂必须加进甲醇或另一种含活泼OH基的溶剂,使硫酸酐吡啶转变成稳定的甲基硫酸氢吡啶。
  
  2.红外水分仪
  
  红外线加热机理:当远红外线辐射到一个物体上时,可发生吸收、反射和透过。但是,不是所有的分子都能吸收远红外线的,只有对那些显示出电的极性分子才能起作用。水,有机物质和高分子物质具有强烈的吸收远红外线的性能。当这些物质吸收远红外线辐射能量并使其分子,原子固有的振动和转动的频率与远红外线辐射的频率相一致时,极容易发生分子、原子的共振或转动,导致运动大大加剧,所转换成的热能使内部升高温度,从而使得物质迅速得到软化或干燥。
  
  一般的加热方法是利用热的传导和对流,需要通过媒质传播,速度慢,能耗大,而远红外线加热是用热的辐射,中间无需媒质传播。同时,由于辐射能与发热体温度的4次方成正比,因此,不仅节约能源而且速度快、效率高。此外,远红外线具有一定的穿透能力,由于被加热干燥的物质在一定深度的内部和表层分子同时吸收远红外辐射能,产生自发热效应,使溶剂或水分子蒸发,发热均匀,从而避免了由于热胀程度不同而产生的形变和质变,使物质外观、物理机械性能、牢度和色泽等保持完好。
  
  红外线水分测定仪主要由红外辐射加热器和电子天平确定其精度和稳定性。
  
  (红外辐射加热器:钨丝真空管可辐射近红外线,碳化硅属长波长的远红外辐射加热器,石英玻璃和陶瓷红外加热器能辐射中红外线)
  
  红外线水分测定仪水分测定基准的公认标准测定法的「干燥减量法」极其类似的加热干燥、质量测定的红外线水分仪。公认标准测定法的「干燥减量法」也被称之为(105℃—5小时法)、(135℃—3小时法)等,通过在干燥机中放入样品进行长时间的加热干燥,来精确的测定干燥前与干燥之后的质量变化,以此计算出水分量。为此,需要测定人员对设备和技术非常精通。由于测定需要较长的时间,因此快速测定大量的样品比较困难。所以,对于高准确度的针对多种多样的样品进行测定而言,除红外线水分计之外不作他想。虽然也有一些其他的电气以及光学的测定方法,但是,都属于限定测定对象的专用仪器。从通用性的角度而言,都远不及红外水分计。
  
  适用范围:可以测定谷物、淀粉、面粉、干面、酿造品、海产品、鱼类加工品、食用肉类加工品、调料、点、心、乳制品、干燥食品、植物油等食品相关物品,药品、矿石砂、焦碳、玻璃原料、水泥、化学肥料、纸、纸浆、棉、各种纤维等的工业制品等。
  
  3.露点水分仪
  
  露点水分测定仪操作简便,仪器不复杂,所测结果一般令人满意,常用于永久性气体中微量水分的测定。但此法干扰较多,一些易冷换气体特别在浓度较高时会比水蒸气先结露产生干扰。
  
  4.微波水分仪
  
  微波水分测定仪利用微波场干燥样品,加速了干燥过程,具有测量时间短,操作方便,准确度高、适用范围广等特点,适用于粮食、造纸、木材、纺织品和化工产品等的颗粒状、粉末状及粘稠性固体试样中的水分测定,还可应用于石油、煤油及其他液体试样中的水分测定。
  
  5.库仑水分仪
  
  库仑水分测定仪常用来测定气体中所含水分。此法操作简便,应答迅速,特别适用于测定气体中的痕量水分。如果用一般的化学方法测定,则是非常因难的事情。但电解法不宜用于碱性物质或共轭双烯烃的测定。

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