使用离心机注意事项和故障排除方法

  1.1使用注意事项
  
  离心机应水平放置,距墙10cm以上,并保持良好的通风环境,免受热源和太阳光线的直接照射,室温不宜超过30℃,否则会影响制冷效果。当外界湿度较大时,离心机腔内的水分挥发慢,此时应及时清除,以防仪器生锈。离心刚从水温箱内取出的样本管时,应经常观察离心杯内是否有积水并及时倾倒,以保持离心杯的干燥和离心时的平衡。离心机严禁不加转头空转,如空转会导致离心机轴弯。离心机运转前必须确认转头已放稳且已加紧,转头盖必须放且放稳。安装好一个转头后,将水平仪平放在转头上,反复调整离心机前面的两个可调螺钉,直到完全水平。精密地平衡离心管和它们的内容物是十分重要的。使用时对负载必须平衡,符合对称安装。使用时如发现声音不正常,立即停机。有的普通离心机带有离心管套筒,平衡时应带上管套筒,一台离心机的套筒只能在该离心机上使用,不能在离心机之间(特别是不同型号的离心机之间)混用套筒。
  
  要注意防止放射性同位素对仪器的污染,首先要仔细观察样本管有无裂痕或沙眼小孔,以免离心时液体渗出;其次是放人离心杯的塑料管动作要轻,防止液体溅出。如液体进入离心杯造成离心机腔内污染,应立即将离心杯取出,用自来水反复冲洗并晾干,同时还应该对离心机腔内进行全面清洁。
  
  1.2常见故障
  
  真空度下降是常见故障。对于高速、超速离心机,大部分都设有真空装置,目的是让离心腔在运行状态时处于中或高真空状态,减少对转头的摩擦,使其稳定运行。在真空度下降或抽真空不好时,要检查真空系统,一般是将油更换,真空度就会恢复。另外,小型或台式离心机,人们常会忘记将放在离心腔中的转头取出,时间长了转头会卡死在轴上。不能用力敲打,这样会损坏离心轴,导致转轴扭歪,会损坏离心机,甚至发生事故。必要时,可以请专业工程师协助取出。高速、超速离心机运行过程中,面板上有故障提示,可以针对相应的故障提示符处理故障。
  
  此外,会遇到离心机不工作的现象。对于高速、超速离心机,看离心条件是否选择合适,检查传感部分、控制系统和显示单元等,逐步检查就可找出原因。对于小型或台式离心机,人们常常会忘记把转头一直放在离心腔里,时间长了转头会卡死在轴上,为了将转头取下,必须用力敲打,这样会严重损伤离心轴,导致转轴扭歪,恢复不了,甚至损坏离心机。
  
  正确的操作、合理的维护是保证仪器正常运转和延长仪器使用寿命的关键。性能优越的离心机,均要正确操作和做好日常维护工作。如能精心维护离心机,观察运行状态,听声音,定期诊断,及时处理,就可以降低故障率,延长使用寿命,使离心机发挥最大的效率。

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